Jakarta, the capital city of Indonesia will witness construction of its first mass rapid rail transport system in 2012. The new commuter rail project will stretch approximately 110.3km and will involve construction of the north-south and the east-west corridors.
The project is being implemented by the provincial government Daerah Khusus Ibukota (DKI) Jakarta through the land transportation authority PT Mass Rapid Transit Jakarta (PT MRT Jakarta) who will also be the operator of the system.
Estimated to cost ¥144bn ($1.78bn), the project is being funded by Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) to the tune of ¥120bn ($1.49bn) while the national government and city government will contribute the remaining amount in proportion of 42% and 58% respectively.
As of April 2011, DKI Jakarta had secured around 42% of the JICA loan amount that was granted to the Provincial Government of DKI Jakarta.
The project comes in the wake of a pressing need to address the growing number of traffic jams in the city. Roads in Jakarta grow at a rate less than 1% a year while more than 1,000 new automobiles a day are launched on the city streets. According to the study conducted by JICA in 2004, Jakarta will face a total road jam in 2020 if the transportation infrastructure is not improved.
In another independent research conducted in 2005, it was estimated that the economic losses incurred due to the traffic jams amount to Rp12.8 trillion ($1.49bn) a year including the cost of valuable time, fuel and health. In addition, automobile pollution accounts for 80% of the city’s total population.
The north-south corridor will be 23.3km-long and run between Lebak Bulus in south and Kampung Bandan in north of Jakarta. It will be built in two phases.
Phase I will comprise of 15.2km rail line from Lebak Bulus to Bundaran HI, located in the centre of the city. It was originally planned to begin from Lebak Bulus to Dukuh Atas (14.5km). The route was however modified in July 2010 and extended by additional 1.3km to Bundaran HI as the availability of wide roads in these areas would facilitate easy construction without causing much traffic delays. Moreover, most of the working population is concentrated in this part of the city and hence was necessary to bring this route first into operation.
Of the total length, 9.2km of the rail track will be elevated and 6km will be underground. Phase I engineering and design process started in November 2009 and was completed in January 2011. DKI Jakarta called for pre-qualification of bidding in April 2011 to begin construction in 2012. It intends to complete and begin operating Phase I by November 2016.
Phase II will extend the route further by 8.1km from Bundaran HI to Kampung Bandan. This line will be built completely underground. Finalisation of the environmental impact assessment (EIA) is underway. It has been targeted for January 2018 opening.
The east-west corridor is expected to be approximately 87km-long and expected to become operational between 2024 and 2027. Two alternate routes have been suggested for this corridor. The first alternative route is located in the centre of the city from Ke Tamgerang-Balaraja in the west to Ke Cikarang in the east. This route is currently underway; a feasibility study began in April 2011. The second alternative route is in the south of Jakarta, between Ke Bekasi in the east and Ke Balaraja in the west.
Phase I of the north-south corridor will have 13 stations of which seven will be elevated and six will be underground. Phase II will have eight underground stations.
Elevated stations will be constructed at Lebak Bulus, Fatmawati, Cipete Raya, Haji Nawi, Blok A, Blok M and Sisingamangaraja. Underground stations will be constructed at Bund.Senayan, Istora, Benhil, Setiabudi, Dukuh Atas, Bundaran HI, Kebon Sirih, Harmoni, Glodock, Kota and Kampung Bandan.
The north-south corridor will have six interchange stations along the 23.3km-long route. Stations that will serve as interchanges include Lebak Bulus, Blok M, Dukuh Atas , Kebon Sirih, Kota and Kampung Bandan. Kebon Sirih will also serve as an interchange station for the east-west corridor.
The 15.2km route will be commuted in 30 minutes with stations placed at distance of 0.5 to 2km.
Trains will operate at headway of five minutes with a target to provide transportation services to 412,700 people after the first three years of operation for Phase I and 629,900 people for Phase II in 2037.